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    Madelung Constant
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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madelung_constant
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    http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
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    For a uni-univalent ionic crystal of specified structure, the binding energy \(V_b\) per pair of ions is \(V_b = \alpha\frac{e^2}{4\pi \varepsilon_0 a}\), where \(e\) is the elementary charge, \(\varepsilon_0\) is the electric constant, and \(a\) is the lattice constant which should be specified.
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    \(\alpha\)
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    "Madelung Constant" is used in determining the electrostatic potential of a single ion in a crystal by approximating the ions by point charges. It is named after Erwin Madelung, a German physicist.